In Penn State’s newest and most advanced research building, a new program is taking shape that, if successful, will revolutionize the ways in which we interact with the human brain. Led by Srinivas Tadigadapa, an electrical engineer, and Steve Schiff, a neurosurgeon with a background in physics and control engineering, this ambitious project exemplifies the convergence of research fields that are typically separated by distinct disciplinary boundaries.
In 2013, the Obama White House laid out a grand challenge to “accelerate the development and application of new technologies that will enable researchers to produce dynamic pictures of the brain that show how individual brain cells and complex neural circuits interact at the speed of thought.” Called the BRAIN Initiative, it is a 12-year plan to fund research into understanding the brain on multiple levels, using a variety of new and developing technologies. With these tools, it is hoped that the many diseases and malfunctions that afflict the brain can be controlled or eliminated. Schiff and Tadigadapa recently won one of Penn State’s two exploratory BRAIN awards.
A transdisciplinary team to solve a monumental problem
Steve Schiff has the soothing voice and gentle manner of someone who has spent a large part of his career dealing with children, and frequently, children in pain. As a pediatric neurosurgeon, he has leant his skills and bedside manner to treating diseases of the brain in children, but as a researcher he is adding another skill set, one based on his background in engineering and physics, to develop technology to understand and control diseases of the brain.
Schiff is director of the Penn State Center for Neural Engineering, a lab that takes up an entire floor of the Life Sciences wing of the Millennium Science Complex on Penn State’s University Park campus. A series of card-swipe controlled laboratories make up the 11,000-square-foot Center, with facilities for the construction of custom electronics, live animal imaging, surgery, and advanced computerized microscopy. His Center colleagues include medical doctors, engineers and biomedical engineers, and the graduate students they are training.
In the Materials wing of the building in a basement micro and nanoscale devices laboratory, Tadigadapa’s group is developing microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) that miniaturize device arrays for sensing and actuating, some of which the team hopes will one day be implanted into the human skull in order to explore the brain on a cell-by-cell basis.