Many infectious pathogens are difficult to treat because they develop into biofilms, layers of metabolically active but slowly growing bacteria embedded in a protective layer of slime, which are inherently more resistant to antibiotics. Now, a group of researchers at Caltech and the University of Oxford have made progress in the fight against biofilms.
The group identified a protein that degrades and inhibits biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the primary pathogen in cystic fibrosis (CF) infections.
Aeruginosa enters a biofilm mode of growth in these contexts; biofilms tolerate conventional antibiotics much better than other modes of bacterial growth.
Pyocyanin has been used in the clinical identification of this strain for over a century, but several years ago the Newman group demonstrated that the molecule also supports biofilm growth, raising the possibility that its degradation might offer a new route to inhibit biofilm development.
“While there is precedent for the use of enzymes to treat bacterial infections, the novelty of this study lies in our observation that selectively degrading a small pigment that supports the biofilm lifestyle can inhibit biofilm expansion,” says Costa, the first author on the study.
While it will take several years of experimentation to determine whether the laboratory findings can be translated to a clinical context, the work has promise for the utilization of proteins like PodA to treat antibiotic-resistant biofilm infections, the researchers say.
Researchers in China report that air plasma can be used to kill biofilms found on the surfaces of perishable fruits and foods — significantly extending their shelf life, and reducing the world’s ‘food waste’ problem as well
Seeing fruit “turn bad and going to waste” inspired a team of researchers in China to explore using atmospheric pressure nonequilibrium plasma — already widely used for medical purposes — as a novel solution to extend the shelf life of fruit and other perishable foods.
When bacteria attaches to food surfaces, it can extract nutrients and continue to proliferate in the form of “biofilms.” Bacterial biofilms on food and food-processing surfaces diminish the food’s quality and safety.
But plasma sources are capable of killing bacteria such as Salmonella and E.coli on apples, as well as other types of spoilage microorganisms on mangos and melons, and Listeria on meat.
Now, researchers from China’s Shanghai Jiao Tong University and Huazhong University of Science and Technology report this week in the journal Physics of Plasmas, from AIP Publishing, about their computational study of how air plasma interacts with bacterial biofilms on an apple’s surface suggests that plasma technology could be used to decontaminate food in the future.
The fundamental concept behind the team’s work is to harness the reactive species generated by plasma to kill bacterial biofilms, which are notoriously difficult to wipe out.
“A biofilm consists of groups of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other, and these cells often adhere to a surface,” explained Xinpei Lu, a professor in the College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering at Huazhong University of Science and Technology. “These adherent cells are frequently embedded within a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substance, which forms in different shapes and acts to protect the bacteria.”
For this work, the team simulated how the structure of the biofilm affects the discharge dynamics and then zeroed in on how the reactive species generated by the plasma are distributed on the biofilm’s surface — because it can later kill the bacteria within the biofilm.
“Plasma is formed when enough energy is added to a gas to ‘free up’ electrons from a significant number of atoms or molecules,” Lu said. “This process, known as ‘ionization,’ creates a mixture of positively charged particles, negatively charged particles, and various uncharged particles.”
High concentrations of so-called free radicals — very chemically reactive atomic or molecular fragments — often exist among these particles.
“These free radicals can quickly overwhelm the natural defenses of living organisms, which leads to their destruction,” he added.
Because plasma can easily produce more than a trillion free radicals per cubic centimeter of volume, it can serve as an efficient decontamination agent.
“Free radicals are one type of germ-killing agent generated via plasmas,” Lu pointed out. “Plasmas also produce other agents such as ultraviolet light, which sterilizes by causing DNA damage.”
Scientists previously observed that bacterial cell membranes sometimes rupture when exposed to plasma. This may be caused by charged particles attaching to the outer surface of the cell — inducing an electrostatic force that can overcome the tensile strength of the cell’s membrane by rupturing it.
So the team decided to explore how plasma interacts with biofilms and how the reactive species generated by the plasma are able to penetrate the cavity of the biofilm.
“Technically, we wanted to simulate the discharge (in millimeter gap distance) while capturing the effect of the biofilm’s mushroom shape (within a micrometer range) — an extremely challenging task,” said Lu.
What did they find?
“We discovered that the structure of the biofilm results in non-uniform distribution of reactive species during the plasma-on period,” he explained. “The mean free path of charged species at micron-scale permitted the plasma to penetrate into the cavity of the biofilm. This means that although the density of reactive species decreased by 6 to 7 orders of magnitude, the diffusion caused a uniform distribution of reactive species inside the cavity during its pulse-off period.”
In terms of applications, the team’s work indicates that air plasma can be used to kill bacteria within biofilms, which could “significantly prolong the amount of time fruit remains edible,” said Lu. Such a technique could be on the market within a few years, “once a low-cost plasma source is developed.”
The next step toward using low-temperature plasma technology for the decontamination of fruit is “to generate a uniform plasma over the irregular surface of the fruit, or to use a plasma jet to scan the surface of the fruit,” Lu noted. “We’re currently working on the latter method to achieve this goal.”
Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Argonne National Laboratory have discovered a way to use a microscopic swirling flow to rapidly clear a circle of tiny bacteria or swimming robots.
“This discovery offers a new approach for control and manipulation of microscopic swimmers,” said Argonne physicist and co-author Igor Aronson, and it could be useful in tiny microfluidic (“lab-on-a-chip”) devices that can quickly run chemical or biological analyses or perform tasks.
In the study, published in Nature Communications, the researchers placed a magnetic particle in the center of a liquid film filled with swimming bacteria.
Normally the bacteria swim randomly; but when scientists spun the particle by applying a rotating magnetic field, the swimmers shot away from the center, like a school of fish that suddenly realized there’s a shark in their midst.
What’s actually happening is that the particle is rotating, creating a small vortex around itself. The bacteria swim parallel to the stream lines and are quickly pushed outward — except for a few that get sucked in right next to the particle.
They’re not pushed out by centrifugal force, said Argonne scientist Andrey Sokolov, who co-authored the paper; dead bacteria, which aren’t swimming, are not pushed out with their living companions.
“Because of the curvature of the flow, some swim in and are trapped on the rotating particle, and others are forced to swim out of the curved flow,” Sokolov said.
This technique could separate live from dead bacteria, or different species, bacterial strains or mutants from one another. “The shape and swimming rates of different species would mean they separate,” Aronson said.
“At certain frequencies of rotation, the bacteria self-organize into a spiral-shaped halo, creating a microscopic galaxy — similar to our galaxy Milky Way, but trillions of trillions (1024) of times smaller,” Sokolov said.
In addition to new understanding of the forces governing microswimmers and their environments, the vortex technique could help prevent biofilms from forming and disrupting microfluidic devices, the authors suggested.
They are particularly interested in creating systems in which microswimmers could assemble gears to build a tiny machine and then power it, Aronson said.
Aronson and Sokolov also modeled the results theoretically and saw good alignment between computer models and observed results, they said.
Learn more: Moving microswimmers with tiny swirling flows