KSU also holds classes at the Cobb Galleria Centre, Dalton State College, Appalachian Technical College and Dallas. Current enrollment is over 32,000 students.
Caltech has six academic divisions with strong emphases on science and engineering. Its 124-acre (50 ha) primary campus is located approximately 11 mi (18 km) northeast of downtown Los Angeles.
Although founded as a preparatory and vocational school by Amos G. Throop in 1891, the college attracted influential scientists such as George Ellery Hale, Arthur Amos Noyes, and Robert Andrews Millikan in the early 20th century. The vocational and preparatory schools were disbanded and spun off in 1910, and the college assumed its present name in 1921. In 1934, Caltech was elected to the Association of American Universities, and the antecedents of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, which Caltech continues to manage and operate, were established between 1936 and 1943 under Theodore von Kármán.
Despite its small size, 32 Caltech alumni and faculty have won a total of 33 Nobel Prizes (Linus Pauling being the only individual in history to win two unshared prizes) and 70 have won the United States National Medal of Science or Technology. There are 112 faculty members who have been elected to the National Academies. In addition, numerous faculty members are associated with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute as well as NASA. Caltech managed $332 million in 2011 in sponsored research and $1.75 billion for its endowment in 2012. It also has a long standing rivalry with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).
California Institute of Technology (Caltech) research articles from Innovation Toronto
- New Metallic Glass Bounces and Could Protect – April 5, 2016
- Seeing Sound: Sensory substitution devices to help the blind detect their environment – October 31, 2015
- Making Nanowires from Protein and DNA – September 5, 2015
- Artificial Leaf Harnesses Sunlight for Efficient Fuel Production – August 30, 2015
- Merlin Identification Tool: Auto-Identify 400 Species of Birds – June 8, 2015
- Clinical trial shows intuitive control of robotic arm using thought – May 22, 2015
- Researchers Test Smartphones for Earthquake Warning – April 13, 2015
- Ceramics That Don’t Have To Be Brittle and Weigh Next to Nothing – September 13, 2014
- Printing the Metals of the Future – July 30, 2014
- Math Can Make the Internet 5-10 Times Faster – July 18, 2014
- Why eating bacteria could be the future of medicine
- 50 Meters of Optical Fiber Shrunk to the Size of Microchips | iPhoD
- Brazil promises 75,000 scholarships in science and technology
- Collaborating for Profits in Nanotechnology
- Penguin-inspired propulsion system
- Neuroelectronics Make Smarter Computer Chips
- Tool Created to Avert Future Energy Crisis
- NASA Spacecraft Embarks on Historic Journey Into Interstellar Space
- Inflatable antennae could give CubeSats greater reach
- Made-to-Order Materials
- Hydrogen Fuel From Sunlight
- Engineers gain new insight into turbulence that could lead to significant global energy savings
- Pushing Microscopy Beyond Standard Limits
- Testing Artificial Photosynthesis
- NASA wants to tow an asteroid to the moon: senator
- Ultra-light Aerogel Produced at a Zhejiang University Lab
- Creating Indestructible Self-Healing Circuits
- NASA announces new CubeSat space mission candidates
- Electric Rocket Engines: Magnetic Shielding of Ion Beam Thruster Walls
- The Gates-Funded Toilet Of The Future
- Sanitation: Flushed with pride
- Artificial jellyfish created from rat heart tissue and silicone
- New mineral, panguite, discovered in 1960s meteorite
- Seeing Inside Tissue for No-Cut Surgeries
- Electricity generated from water
- Ocean-powered robotic jellyfish could theoretically run forever
- Caltech scientists make MS breakthrough
- DNA robot could kill cancer cells
- New Micro-Lattice Material Promises Huge Automotive Breakthrough
- Tiny Biocomputers Move Closer to Reality
- World’s Lightest Material Is a Metal 100 Times Lighter Than Styrofoam
- Petri dish gets 21st Century update
- Their Mission: To Build a Better Toilet
- Acoustic diode allows sound waves to only travel in one direction
- Bold New Approach to Wind ‘Farm’ Design May Provide Efficiency Gains
- First Artificial Neural Network Created out of DNA
- Portable Microchip for Immune Monitoring and Clinical Applications
- Autonomous Robots Made to Explore and Map Buildings
- Strong, Tough and Now Cheap: New Way to Process Metallic Glass Developed
- New power sources use magnesium
- New Reactor Paves the Way for Efficiently Producing Fuel from Sunlight
- Glassy Metal Set to Rival Steel
- Science of TRON: Getting Up to Speed with Teleportation and Quantum Computing
- “The goal was to get patients to control things with their minds,”
- Consumers Will Pay More for Goods They Can Touch
- Schooling Fish Offer New Ideas for Wind Farming
- Photovoltaic Breakthroughs Brighten Outlook for Cheap Solar Power
- Coming Soon, a Night Watchman With Wheels? | mobile robot
- Historic Demonstration Proves Laser Communication Possible
- World Record Solar Cell with 44.7% Efficiency
- Hacking U.S. Secrets, China Pushes for Drones
- Biologists Discover New Method for Discovering Antibiotics
- Space Laser To Prove Increased Broadband Possible
- New Electron Beam Writer Enables Next-Gen Biomedical and Information Technologies
- 3-D Printing Just Got Faster, Cheaper and Squisher
- bRight: Taking human-machine interaction to the next level
- Why Toyota and GM Are Pushing Fuel-Cell Cars to Market
- New Filtration Material Could Make Petroleum Refining Cheaper, More Efficient
- Wireless signals could transform brain trauma diagnostics
- Biofuel pioneer forsakes renewables to make gas-fed fuel
- Making living matter programmable
- New Solar-Energy Device is 100 Times More Efficient Than Previous Design
- NASA’s First Laser Communication System Integrated, Ready for Launch
- 4D printing sees materials form themselves into anything
- UCLA researchers develop new technique to scale up production of graphene micro-supercapacitors
- New Breakthrough Prize Awards Millions to Life Scientists
- Major breakthrough in deciphering bread wheat’s genetic code
- Nanotech Device Mimics Dog’s Nose to Detect Explosives
- Kickstarter sued over 3D Systems’ printer patent
- Medical Devices Powered by the Ear Itself
- Plants provide accurate low-cost alternative for diagnosis of West Nile Virus
- VIDEO: Getting (drugs) under your skin
- Tech’s New Wave, Driven by Data
- UCLA’s new transparent solar film could be game-changer
- Mending a Broken Heart With a Molecule That Turns Stem Cells Into Heart Cells
- White House Petitioned to Make Research Free to Access
- Portland State University students’ invention tops the field at national engineering competition
- Computing experts unveil superefficient ‘inexact’ chip
- Crowd-sourcing brain research leads to breakthrough
- Controversy Flares Over Space-Based Solar Power Plans
- Unconventional geothermal techniques a potential game changer for U.S. energy policy
- What’s the big idea?
- New ‘Biopsy in a Blood Test’ to Detect Cancer
- Wireless Sensors Monitor Brain Waves on the Fly
- Human stem cell therapy works in blind patients in first trial
- Collision in the Making Between Self-Driving Cars and How the World Works
- Academic Earth
- Privately-funded science university plan
- More Companies Bypassing Electric Grid Inefficiencies With Fuel Cells
- Artificial intelligence: Luddite legacy
- The Newest Companies Coming Out Of Incubators: EdTech
- Online Tools Help Bands Do Business
- New Advanced Biofuel Identified as an Alternative to Diesel Fuel
- New Japanese Wind Turbine Triples Power Output Without Increasing Size
- Smart Skin: Electronics That Stick and Stretch Like a Temporary Tattoo
- Rare-disease studies seek online giving
- Coming to TV Screens of the Future: A Sense of Smell
- Cyber Attack Risk on Car Computers
- First Practical Nanogenerator Produces Electricity With Pinch of the Fingers
- A quantum leap for lighting
- Perception Challenge has next-generation robots in its sights
- The internet at forty
- The High Demand for High-Tech (jobs) is SERIOUS
- Rare Hits and Heaps of Misses to Pay For
- The Missing Link in Adoption of Solar Power? Electricians
- Web Plan Is Dividing Companies
- Heads-Up Virtual Reality device lets users see and ‘touch’ 3D images
- Stability and Utility of Floating Wind Turbines Shown in New Study
- The Idea Incubator Goes to Campus
- Scientific team creates molecular robot from DNA
- Record achieved with low-cost solar cells
- World’s smallest, lightest telemedicine microscope
- Turning Bumpy Roads into an Electrifying Product
- Monitoring greenhouse gases
- Far From a Lab? Turn a Cellphone Into a Microscope
- Home Energy Savings Are Made In The Shade
- Bioelectricity Promises More ‘Miles Per Acre’ Than Ethanol
A computer algorithm for analyzing time-lapse biological images could make it easier for scientists and clinicians to find and track multiple molecules in living organisms. The technique is faster, less expensive and more accurate than current methods — and it even works with cell phone images.
A new image analysis technique makes finding important biological molecules — including tell-tale signs of disease — and learning how they interact in living organisms much faster and far less expensive. Called Hyper-Spectral Phasor analysis, or HySP, it could even be useful for diagnosing and monitoring diseases using cell phone images.
Researchers use fluorescent imaging to locate proteins and other molecules in cells and tissues. It works by tagging the molecules with dyes that glow under certain kinds of light — the same principle behind so-called “black light” images.
Fluorescent imaging can help scientists understand which molecules are produced in large amounts in cancer or other diseases, information that may be useful in diagnosis or in identifying possible targets for therapeutic drugs.
Looking at just one or two molecules in cell or tissue samples is fairly straightforward. Unfortunately, it doesn’t provide a clear picture of how those molecules are behaving in the real world. For that, scientists need to expand their view.
“Biological research is moving toward complex systems that extend across multiple dimensions, the interaction of multiple elements over time,” said postdoctoral fellow Francesco Cutrale. He developed HySP with Scott Fraser
, Elizabeth Garrett Chair in Convergent Bioscience and Provost Professor of Biological Science. The work was done at USC’s Translational Imaging Center, a joint venture of USC Dornsife and USC Viterbi School of Engineering.
“By looking at multiple targets, or watching targets move over time, we can get a much better view of what’s actually happening within complex living systems,” Cutrale said.
Currently, researchers must look at different labels separately, then apply complicated techniques to layer them together and figure out how they relate to one another, a time-consuming and expensive process, Cutrale said. HySP can look at many different molecules in one pass.
“Imagine looking at 18 targets,” Cutrale said. “We can do that all at once, rather than having to perform 18 separate experiments and try to combine them later.”
In addition, the algorithm effectively filters through interference to discern the true signal, even if that signal is extremely weak — very much like finding the proverbial needle in a haystack. Recent technology from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory can also do this, but the equipment and process are both extremely expensive and time-consuming.
In research published Jan. 9 online by the scientific journal Nature Methods, Cutrale and Fraser, along with researchers from Keck School of Medicine, Caltech and the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom, have used zebra fish to test and develop HySP. In this common laboratory model, the system works extremely well. But what about in people?
“In experimental models, we can use genetic manipulation to label molecules, but we can’t do that with people,” said Fraser. “In people, we have to use the intrinsic signals of those molecules.”
Those inherent signals, the natural fluorescence from biomolecules, normally gets in the way of imaging, Fraser said. However, using this new computer algorithm that can effectively find weak signals in a cluttered background, the team can pinpoint their targets in the body.
Different fluorescent light wavelengths reveal features of a zebra fish embryo. Photo courtesy of Francesco Cutrale.
The scientists hope to test the process in the next couple of years with the help of soldiers whose lungs have been damaged by chemicals and irritants they may have encountered in combat. The researchers will extend a light-emitting probe down into the soldiers’ lungs while the probe records images of the fluorescence in the surrounding tissues. They will then use HySP to create what amounts to a fluorescent map and compare it with that of healthy lung tissue to see if they can discern the damage. If so, they hope to further develop the technology so it may one day help these soldiers and other lung patients receive more targeted treatment.
It might also be possible one day for clinicians to use HySP to analyze cell phone pictures of skin lesions to determine if they are at risk of being cancerous, according to Fraser and Cutrale.
“We could determine if the lesions have changed color or shape over time,” Cutrale said. Clinicians could then examine the patient further to be certain of a diagnosis and respond appropriately.
Cutrale and Fraser see the technology as a giant leap forward for both research and medicine.
“Both scientists at the bench and scientists at the clinic will be able to perform their work faster and with greater confidence in the results,” Cutrale said. “Better, faster, cheaper. That’s the payoff here.”
Seeing deep into space requires large telescopes. The larger the telescope, the more light it collects, and the sharper the image it provides.
For example, NASA’s Kepler space observatory, with a mirror diameter of under one meter, is searching for exoplanets orbiting stars up to 3,000 light-years away. By contrast, the Hubble Space Telescope, with a 2.4-meter mirror, has studied stars more than 10 billion light-years away.
Now Caltech’s Sergio Pellegrino and colleagues are proposing a space observatory that would have a primary mirror with a diameter of 100 meters—40 times larger than Hubble’s. Space telescopes, which provide some of the clearest images of the universe, are typically limited in size due to the difficulty and expense of sending large items into space. Pellegrino’s team would circumvent that issue by shipping the mirror up as separate components that would be assembled, in space, by robots.
Their design calls for the use of more than 300 deployable truss modules that could be unfolded to form a scaffolding upon which a commensurate number of small mirror plates could be placed to create a large segmented mirror. The assembly of the scaffolding and the attachment of the many mirrors is a task well-suited to robots, Pellegrino and his colleagues say.
In their concept, a spider-like, six-armed “hexbot” would assemble the trusswork and then crawl across the structure to build the mirror atop it. It was modeled on the JPL RoboSimian system, which in 2015 completed the DARPA Robotics Challenge, a federal competition aimed at spurring the development of robots that could perform complicated tasks that would be dangerous for humans. The hexbot would run on electrical power from the telescope’s solar grid. It would use four of its arms to walk—with one leg moving at any given time, while the three others remain securely attached to the structure. The two remaining arms would be free to assemble the trusses and mirrors.
The team opted to pursue an ambitious 100-meter design. “We wanted to study how different kinds of architectures perform as the diameter is increased,” says Pellegrino, Joyce and Kent Kresa Professor of Aeronautics and Professor of Civil Engineering in Caltech’s Division of Engineering and Applied Science, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory Senior Research Scientist. “We found that far away from the Earth, a structurally connected telescope is much heavier than an architecture based on separate spacecraft for the primary mirror, the optics, and the instrumentation.”
The realization of such an assembly is still decades away. However, Pellegrino and his colleagues are already working on the various technologies that will be needed to make it possible.
The entire space observatory would be composed of the fully assembled mirror-and-truss structure and three other parts, flying in formation. An optics and instrumentation unit would be located about 400 meters from the mirror; a control unit, stationed about 400 meters beyond that, would align the system and keep it working properly; and a thin shade, roughly 20 meters in diameter, would shield the mirror from the sun to keep its temperature stable and consistent across its diameter.
The four-part assembly would be stationed at one of the sun–earth Lagrange points—locations between the sun and the earth where the pull of gravity from two bodies locks a satellite into orbit with them, allowing it to maintain a stable position. There, the space observatory could peer deep into space without drifting out of place.
Low-cost coating would disrupt the building retrofit market and potentially save billions in electricity
It’s estimated that 10 percent of all the energy used in buildings in the U.S. can be attributed to window performance, costing building owners about $50 billion annually, yet the high cost of replacing windows or retrofitting them with an energy efficient coating is a major deterrent. U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE)’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) researchers are seeking to address this problem with creative chemistry—a polymer heat-reflective coating that can be painted on at one-tenth the cost.
“Instead of hiring expensive contractors, a homeowner could go to the local hardware store, buy the coating, and paint it on as a DIY retrofit—that’s the vision,” said Berkeley Lab scientist Raymond Weitekamp. “The coating will selectively reflect the infrared solar energy back to the sky while allowing visible light to pass through, which will drastically improve the energy efficiency of windows, particularly in warm climates and southern climates, where a significant fraction of energy usage goes to air conditioning.”
A team of Berkeley Lab scientists is receiving part of a $3.95 million award from the Department of Energy’s Advanced Research Projects Agency–Energy (ARPA-E) to develop this product. The multi-institutional team is led by researcher Garret Miyake at the University of Colorado Boulder, and also includes Caltech and Materia Inc.
There are retrofit window films on the market now that have spectral selectivity, but a professional contractor is needed to install them, a barrier for many building owners. A low-cost option could significantly expand adoption and result in potential annual energy savings of 35 billion kilowatt-hours, reducing carbon dioxide emissions by 24 billion kilograms per year, the equivalent of taking 5 million cars off the road.
The Berkeley Lab technology relies on a type of material called a bottlebrush polymer, which, as its name suggests, has one main rigid chain of molecules with bristles coming off the sides. This unusual molecular architecture lends it some unique properties, one being that it doesn’t entangle easily.
“Imagine spaghetti versus gummy worms,” Weitekamp explained. “Spaghetti can be tied up in knots. If you want to rearrange cooked spaghetti back to its uncooked alignment, you would have to put significant energy into unwinding it. But with gummy worms you can line them all up easily because they’re pretty rigid.”
As a graduate student at Caltech, Weitekamp worked on understanding and controlling how bottlebrush polymers self-assemble into nanostructures behaving as photonic crystals, which can selectively reflect light at different frequencies. Last year he came to Berkeley Lab as part of Cyclotron Road, a program for entrepreneurial researchers, to commercialize these coatings and other related polymer-based technologies. He has been working on the development of polymeric materials as a user at the Molecular Foundry, a DOE Office of Science User Facility at Berkeley Lab.
“We were very compelled by the potential impact of [Weitekamp’s] technology across a number of industries,” said Cyclotron Road director Ilan Gur. “His ideas aligned with the Foundry’s expertise in polymer chemistry and the window application fit squarely into Berkeley Lab’s existing strengths in buildings technology and energy analysis.”
For the ARPA-E award, Weitekamp is collaborating with Berkeley Lab’s Steve Selkowitz, a leading expert on building science and window technologies, and Arman Shehabi, an expert in analyzing energy use of buildings, to develop a cost-competitive and scalable product. Their target cost is $1.50 per square foot, one-tenth the current market cost for commercially installed energy efficient retrofit window coatings.
“ARPA-E invests in high-risk, high-reward projects,” Shehabi said. “The high reward in this project isn’t in the performance improvement. It’s transformative in how windows could be retrofitted—it’s something you can do yourself. The market need is very large, and there’s nothing low-cost out there that meets that need.”
Mathematical equations can make Internet communication via computer, mobile phone or satellite many times faster and more secure than today.
Results with software developed by researchers from Aalborg University in collaboration with the US universities the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and California Institute of Technology (Caltech) are attracting attention in the international technology media.
A new study uses a four minute long mobile video as an example. The method used by the Danish and US researchers in the study resulted in the video being downloaded five times faster than state of the art technology. The video also streamed without interruptions. In comparison, the original video got stuck 13 times along the way.