The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) is the federal government agency for scientific research in Australia.
It was founded in 1926 originally as the Advisory Council of Science and Industry.
Research highlights include the invention of atomic absorption spectroscopy, development of the first commercially successful polymer banknote, the invention of the insect repellent in Aerogard and the introduction of a series of biological controls into Australia, such as the introduction of myxomatosis and rabbit calicivirus which causes rabbit haemorrhagic disease for the control of rabbit populations. CSIRO’s research into ICT technologies has resulted in advances such as the Panoptic search engine (now known as Funnelback) and Annodex.
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CSIRO research articles from Innovation Toronto
- Salt baths greatly boost charge efficiency for lithium batteries – June 18, 2016
- Breakthrough fuel cell membrane inspired by cactus – April 30, 2016
- New gene-detecting technology brings new, resilient superwheat closer – April 25, 2016
- Bat super immunity to lethal disease could help protect people – February 25, 2016
- Wheat disease-resistance gene identified, potential to save billions – November 11, 2015
- Cancer patient receives 3D printed ribs in world-first surgery – September 12, 2015
- Breathing new life into malaria detection – April 23, 2015
- Robots to ResQu rainforests from purple plague – September 3, 2014
- HeatWave: mobile 3D thermal mapping in real-time – July 21, 2014
- Exploration drilling breakthrough could save up to 85 per cent of costs – May 27, 2014
- Soil contamination detector launched in the US – May 26, 2014
- CSIRO uses x-ray vision to detect unseen gold
- Soil contamination detector launched in the US
- Near error-free wireless detection made possible
- 3D mapping is a ‘Pisa’ cake for Aussie scientists
- Breakthrough in wheat disease
- Breakthrough advances nanomaterials for printable solar cells
- Plasma-treated nano filters help purify world water supply
- Saws made of carbon
- Deserts ‘greening’ from rising CO2
- Petabyte storage on a single disc or the equivalent of 10.6 years of compressed HD-TV video
- Robots to drones, Australia eyes high-tech farm help to grow food
- Carbon sponge could soak up coal emissions
- ‘Air shower’ saves 50 per cent on water
- New 2D material for next generation high-speed electronics
- Genetically engineered safflower plant improves oil output for industry
- BlueGen mini power stations for the world
- Handheld plasma flashlight rids skin of notorious pathogens
- Allergy-Free Eggs
- Salt Tolerance Breakthrough – Cross-bred wheat lifts yields
- Major Breakthrough On How Viruses Infect Plants
- Color-changing, heat-sensitive bandage indicates infection
- Australian-built mineral exploration tool wins major award
- New solar thermal tower power plant requires only sun and air
- New Oil Detection Technique
Scientists at the John Innes Centre (JIC) and The Sainsbury Laboratory (TSL) have pioneered a new gene-detecting technology which, if deployed correctly could lead to the creation of a new elite variety of wheat with durable resistance to disease.
Working with fellow scientists at TSL, Dr Brande Wulff from the JIC developed the new technology called ‘MutRenSeq’ which accurately pinpoints the location of disease resistance genes in large plant genomes and which has reduced the time it takes to clone these genes in wheat from 5 to 10 years down to just two.
Effective use of these resistance genes in wheat could increase global yields and vastly reduce the need for agro-chemical applications.
A resistance gene acts like a simple lock keeping the pathogen from infecting the plant. Over time, as many breeders and growers have found, pathogens can adapt to overcome an individual resistance gene and infect the plant. A stack of multiple genes acts like a multi-lever lock, making it much harder for new pathogens to evade the crop’s defences.
Dr Brande Wulff said:
“The challenge has always been finding enough resistance genes to create an effective multi-gene ‘stack’ against virulent pathogens like wheat stem rust and wheat yellow rust which, if left unchallenged, can decimate crops across the world. With the advent of this new technology, the development of a new variety of wheat with strong resistance to one or more of these pathogens is now within reach.”
Using this technology, scientists can very quickly locate resistance genes from crops, clone them and stack multiple resistance genes into one elite variety.
MutRenSeq is a three step method for quickly isolating resistance genes based on (i) creating mutants from resistant wild type wheat plants and identifying those with loss of disease resistance, (ii) sequencing genomes of both wild type resistant plants and those which have lost resistance, and finally (iii) comparing these genes in mutants and wild types to identify the exact mutations responsible for the loss of disease resistance.
Dr Wulff collaborated with Drs Evans Lagudah and Sam Periyannan at CSIRO Agriculture in Australia, who had used a chemical (EMS) to cause mutations in the genomes of a sample of resistant wild type wheat plants. They then screened the mutant population by infecting it with the pathogen, to identify mutants that were no longer resistant.
The hypothesis was that these mutants would all share mutations in a common gene, which must be the resistance gene. They compared the sequences of the mutants to one another and looked for the overlap. Sequencing one mutant will identify several hundred mutations – each mutation indicating a candidate gene.
However, by comparing two mutants to each other, and looking for the overlap, the list is reduced from a few hundred, to just a handful.
Comparing three or more mutants, enabled the team to identify an overlap of only a single gene in the susceptible wheat plants.
Dr Wulff said:
“With MutRenSeq we can find the needle in the haystack: we can reduce the complexity of finding resistance genes by zeroing in from 124,000 genes, to just a single candidate gene.”
In the first test run of MutRenSeq, Dr Wulff’s team successfully isolated a well-known resistance gene, Sr33, in a fraction of the time it had previously taken to do this by conventional breeding techniques. Following this success, the team then cloned two important stem rust resistance genes, Sr22 and Sr45, which scientists have until now, been unable to isolate successfully.
According to the UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO) wheat is grown on more land area than any other commercial crop (approximately 240m hectares) and continues to be the most important food grain source for humans.
Farmers in the west rely on pesticides to control pathogens in wheat but fewer and fewer agrochemicals are available for use due to concerns over their environmental impact. Farmers in poorer countries have little or no access to these chemicals and are highly vulnerable to disease-related losses, which can lead to hunger and malnutrition.
The UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimates that 31 countries in East and North Africa, the Near East, Central and South Asia, which account for more than 37 percent of global wheat production area and 30% of global production, are at risk of wheat rust diseases including the Ug99 race of stem rust and Yr27 strain of yellow rust.
An alternative to pesticide-use is to build resistance into the crop by introducing resistant genes from other varieties of wheat into elite varieties.
Dr Wulff said:
“Finding and cloning these crucial genes has up until now been like looking for a needle in a haystack. The wheat genome is huge and contains many repeats. This new technology will transform this part of the scientific process.
“Though the next stage of stacking large numbers of genes correctly in the complex wheat genome is not easy and may take time, the advent of this new gene-detecting technology has brought the creation of one or more new elite varieties of wheat with long-awaited durable disease resistance much closer.”
Breakthrough could help address growing demand for the staple that already provides a fifth of global caloric intake.
An international team of scientists has identified a gene that can prevent some of the most significant wheat diseases—creating the potential to save more than a billion dollars in lost production in Australia each year.
Estimates put potential losses from wheat rust diseases in Australia alone at more than one-and-a-half billion dollars each year.Associate Professor Harbans Bariana
The findings should have wide-reaching ramifications, with wheat already providing a fifth of global caloric intake and set to spike in the next 50 years.
A gene that can prevent some of the most important wheat diseases has been identified—creating the potential to save more than a billion dollars in lost production in Australia each year.
In a global collaboration including the University of Sydney’s Plant Breeding Institute (PBI), the CSIRO, CIMMYT (Mexico), University of Newcastle, Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Norwegian University of Life Sciences, the gene Lr67 has been identified as providing resistance to three of the most important wheat rust diseases, along with powdery mildew, a significant disease in Norway.
The findings, published today in Nature Genetics, should have wide-reaching ramifications, with wheat already providing a fifth of global caloric intake and set to spike in the next 50 years.
Preliminary results show the device, created at Cedars-Sinai and developed by NeuroVision Imaging, may provide highly predictive early detection of changes associated with Alzheimer’s disease
A noninvasive optical imaging device developed at Cedars-Sinai can provide early detection of changes that later occur in the brain and are a classic sign of Alzheimer’s disease, according to preliminary results from investigators conducting a clinical trial in Australia.
The researchers will present their findings July 15 in an oral presentation at the Alzheimer’s Association International Conference 2014 in Copenhagen, Denmark. They also were invited by conference organizers to participate in a “breaking news” news conference beginning at 7:30 a.m. Sunday, July 13 in Copenhagen, 1:30 a.m. EDT.