Purdue was founded on May 6, 1869, as a land-grant university when the Indiana General Assembly, taking advantage of the Morrill Act, accepted a donation of land and money from Lafayette businessman John Purdue to establish a college of science, technology, and agriculture in his name.
The first classes were held on September 16, 1874, with six instructors and 39 students.
The university was founded with the gift of $150,000 from John Purdue, a Lafayette business leader and philanthropist, along with $50,000 from Tippecanoe County, and 150 acres (0.6 km²) of land from Lafayette residents in support of the project. In 1869, it was decided that the new school would be built near the city of Lafayette and established as Purdue University, in the name of the institution’s principal benefactor.
Purdue University research articles from Innovation Toronto
- Microbots controlled using mini force fields – January 14, 2016
- A nanophotonic comeback for incandescent bulbs? – January 12, 2016
- Researchers see promising results in treating age-related decline in muscle mass and power – January 1, 2016
- ‘Hydricity’ concept uses solar energy to produce power round-the-clock – December 17, 2015
- Challenge to classic theory of ‘organic’ solar cells could improve efficiency dramatically – August 20, 2015
- Inkjet-printed liquid metal could bring wearable tech, soft robotics – April 11, 2015
- Robotic fabric could bring ‘active clothing,’ wearable robots – October 4, 2014
- Wireless Sensor Transmits Tumor Pressure – September 22, 2014
- New manufacturing methods needed for ‘soft’ machines, robots – June 20, 2014
- Purdue researchers shut down a SARS cloaking system; findings could pave the way to vaccines for SARS virus, MERS – June 9, 2014
- System ‘prints’ precise drug dosages tailored for patients – May 18, 2014
- <a ” title=”Mantis Shrimp Stronger than Airplanes | advanced materials” href=”http://www.innovationtoronto.com/2014/04/mantis-shrimp-stronger-airplanes/” rel=”bookmark”>Mantis Shrimp Stronger than Airplanes | advanced materials – April 26, 2014
- Nanotube coating helps shrink mass spectrometers | tricorder
- Research could bring new devices that control heat flow
- Graphene-Based Nano-Antennas May Enable Networks of Tiny Machines
- Purdue University students develop high performance electric motorbike
- Purdue-developed technology could provide a solution to antibiotic-resistant bacteria, save lives
- New hologram technology created with tiny nanoantennas
- New hologram technology created with tiny nanoantennas
- Interlocking segments might be 3-D printed, assembled into parts
- Researcher finds way to convert blood cells into autoimmune disease treatment
- ‘Temporal cloaking’ could bring more secure optical communications
- ‘Super-resolution’ microscope possible for nanostructures
- In-package plasma process quickly, effectively kills bacteria
- Trees Used to Create Recyclable, Efficient Solar Cells
- ‘Metasurfaces’ to usher in new optical technologies
- Mystery Surrounding the Harnessing of Fusion Energy Unlocked
- New Class of Power Inverter Could Mean Cheaper, Faster Hybrid Vehicles
- New interactive system detects touch and gestures on any surface
- New tool gives structural strength to 3-D printed works
- No magic show: Real-world levitation to inspire better pharmaceuticals
- Body heat, fermentation drive new drug-delivery ‘micropump’
- ‘Nano machine shop’ shapes nanowires, ultrathin films
- Energy-Dense Biofuel from Cellulose Close to Being Economical
A skin-like biomedical technology that uses a mesh of conducting nanowires and a thin layer of elastic polymer might bring new electronic bandages that monitor biosignals for medical applications and provide therapeutic stimulation through the skin.
The biomedical device mimics the human skin’s elastic properties and sensory capabilities.
“It can intimately adhere to the skin and simultaneously provide medically useful biofeedback such as electrophysiological signals,” said Chi Hwan Lee, an assistant professor of biomedical engineering and mechanical engineering at Purdue University. “Uniquely, this work combines high-quality nanomaterials into a skin-like device, thereby enhancing the mechanical properties.”
The device could be likened to an electronic bandage and might be used to treat medical conditions using thermotherapeutics, where heat is applied to promote vascular flow for enhanced healing, said Lee, who worked with a team that includes Purdue graduate student Min Ku Kim.
Traditional approaches to developing such a technology have used thin films made of ductile metals such as gold, silver and copper.
“The problem is that these thin films are susceptible to fractures by over-stretching and cracking,” Lee said. “Instead of thin films we use nanowire mesh film, which makes the device more resistive to stretching and cracking than otherwise possible. In addition, the nanowire mesh film has very high surface area compared to conventional thin films, with more than 1,000 times greater surface roughness. So once you attach it to the skin the adhesion is much higher, reducing the potential of inadvertent delamination.”
Findings are detailed in a research publication appearing online in October in Advanced Materials. The paper is also available online at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/adma.201603878/full and was authored by Kim; postdoctoral researcher Seungyong Han at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Purdue graduate student Dae Seung Wie; Oklahoma State University assistant professor Shuodao Wang and postdoctoral researcher Bo Wang; and Lee.
The conducting nanowires are around 50 nanometers in diameter and more than 150 microns long and are embedded inside a thin layer of elastomer, or elastic polymer, about 1.5 microns thick. To demonstrate its utility in medical diagnostics, the device was used to record electrophysiological signals from the heart and muscles. A YouTube video about the research is available at https://youtu.be/tYRebHNi6p4.
“Recording the electrophysiological signals from the skin can provide wearers and clinicians with quantitative measures of the heart’s activity or the muscle’s activity,” Lee said.
Much of the research was performed in the Birck Nanotechnology Center in Purdue’s Discovery Park.
“The nanowires mesh film was initially formed on a conventional silicon wafer with existing micro- and nano-fabrication technologies. Our unique technique, called a crack-driven transfer printing technique, allows us to controllably peel off the device layer from the silicon wafer, and then apply onto the skin,” Lee said.
The Oklahoma State researchers contributed theoretical simulations related to the underlying mechanics of the devices, and Seungyong Han synthesized and provided the conducting nanowires.
Future research will be dedicated to developing a transdermal drug-delivery bandage that would transport medications through the skin in an electronically controlled fashion. Such a system might include built-in sensors to detect the level of injury and autonomously deliver the appropriate dose of drugs.
Researchers have confirmed the existence of a naturally occurring exotic property in which a material becomes thicker when stretched – the opposite of most materials – a discovery that could lead to new studies into the fundamental science of nano-materials behavior.
The counterintuitive phenomenon, called auxetic behavior, has been extensively studied in engineered structures that have potential applications in medicine, tissue engineering, body armor and “fortified armor enhancement.”
However, until now the behavior has not been confirmed in natural materials, said Peide Ye, Purdue University’s Richard J. and Mary Jo Schwartz Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering.
The auxetic behavior was discovered in a material called black phosphorous.
The phenomenon is governed by a fundamental mechanical property of materials called the Poisson’s ratio, which characterizes how a material behaves when stretched. Most materials when stretched become thinner and when compressed become thicker, and they are said to have a positive Poisson’s ratio.
“A negative Poisson’s ratio is theoretically possible but until now has not, with few exceptions of man-made structures, been experimentally observed in any natural materials,” Ye said. “Here, we show that the negative Poisson’s ratio exists in the natural material black phosphorus.”
Findings are detailed in a research paper that appeared on Sept. 23 in the journal Nano Letters.
“Until now, there has been a lack of experimental evidence since the measurement of internal deformation in auxetic materials, in particular at the atomic level, is extremely difficult,” Ye said.
Researchers used a technique called Raman spectroscopy to document the negative Poisson’s ratio in extremely thin, individual layers of black phosphorous called phosphorene. The research was based at the Birck Nanotechnology Center in Purdue’s Discovery Park.
The Nano Letters paper was authored by doctoral student Yuchen Du; former postdoctoral research associate Jesse Maassen; graduate students Wangran Wu and Zhe Luo; Xianfan Xu, the James J. and Carol L. Shuttleworth Professor of Mechanical Engineering and professor of electrical and computer engineering; and Ye. Du carried out most of the experiments. Maassen performed the theoretical work critical to the research. He is now an assistant professor of physics at Dalhousie University in Nova Scotia, Canada.
The researchers focused on the material’s uniquely puckered crystal structure in which atoms are arranged in a wavy pattern. Like silicon, the material possesses a bandgap, a trait essential for a semiconductor’s ability to switch on and off in electronic circuits. The material also has a relatively high “carrier mobility,” meaning it is very conductive and could be useful for technological applications.
Future research will include work to investigate whether the negative Poisson’s ratio exists in other so-called “two-dimensional” materials, including extremely thin layers of graphite called graphene.
Researchers have levitated a tiny nanodiamond particle with a laser in a vacuum chamber, using the technique for the first time to detect and measure its “torsional vibration,” an advance that could bring new types of sensors and studies in quantum mechanics.
The experiment represents a nanoscale version of the torsion balance used in the classic Cavendish experiment, performed in 1798 by British scientist Henry Cavendish, which determined Newton’s gravitational constant. A bar balancing two lead spheres at either end was suspended on a thin metal wire. Gravity acting on the two weights caused the wire and bar to twist, and this twisting – or torsion – was measured to calculate the gravitational force.
In the new experiment, an oblong-shaped nanodiamond levitated by a laser beam in a vacuum chamber served the same role as the bar, and the laser beam served the same role as the wire in Cavendish’s experiment.
“A change of the orientation of the nanodiamond caused the polarization of the laser beam to twist,” said Tongcang Li, an assistant professor of physics and astronomy and electrical and computer engineering at Purdue University. “Torsion balances have played historic roles in the development of modern physics. Now, an optically levitated ellipsoidal nanodiamond in a vacuum provides a new nanoscale torsion balance that will be many times more sensitive.”
Findings are detailed in a paper that appeared on Thursday (Sept. 15) in the journal Physical Review Letters.
“This is the first experimental observation of torsional motion of a nanoparticle levitated in a vacuum and represents a very sensitive torque detector,” Li said. “In principle, we could detect the torque on a single electron or a single proton.”
The paper was authored by Purdue postdoctoral research associate Thai M. Hoang; student Yue Ma from Tsinghua University in China; Purdue graduate students Jonghoon Ahn and Jaehoon Bang;Francis Robicheaux, a Purdue professor of physics and astronomy; Zhang-Qi Yin, an assistant research fellow at Tsinghua University; and Li.
The paper details the detection of torsional vibration, a proposal to use the technique for torque sensing and also to achieve torsional “ground state cooling,” which could aid efforts to study quantum theory and realize potential applications in quantum information processing and high-precision measurement for sensors.
This cooling reduces “noise” caused by vibrating molecules and atoms, making it possible to precisely measure torque and probe the relationships between motion and electron “spin.” Electrons can be thought of as having two distinct spin states, “up” or “down,” and this phenomenon might be used in future quantum simulations.
The paper includes experimental and theoretical portions.
“Experimentally, we observed torsional motion, and the theoretical part is a proposal of how to cool down the motion to achieve quantum ground state,” Li said.
The nanodiamonds are about 100 nanometers in diameter, or roughly the size of a virus. Future research will include efforts to achieve ground state cooling.
The researchers in Jonathan Claussen’s lab at Iowa State University (who like to call themselves nanoengineers) have been looking for ways to use graphene and its amazing properties in their sensors and other technologies.
Graphene is a wonder material: The carbon honeycomb is just an atom thick. It’s great at conducting electricity and heat; it’s strong and stable. But researchers have struggled to move beyond tiny lab samples for studying its material properties to larger pieces for real-world applications.
Recent projects that used inkjet printers to print multi-layer graphene circuits and electrodes had the engineers thinking about using it for flexible, wearable and low-cost electronics. For example, “Could we make graphene at scales large enough for glucose sensors?” asked Suprem Das, an Iowa State postdoctoral research associate in mechanical engineering and an associate of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Ames Laboratory.
But there were problems with the existing technology. Once printed, the graphene had to be treated to improve electrical conductivity and device performance. That usually meant high temperatures or chemicals – both could degrade flexible or disposable printing surfaces such as plastic films or even paper.
Das and Claussen came up with the idea of using lasers to treat the graphene. Claussen, an Iowa State assistant professor of mechanical engineering and an Ames Laboratory associate, worked with Gary Cheng, an associate professor at Purdue University’s School of Industrial Engineering, to develop and test the idea.
And it worked: They found treating inkjet-printed, multi-layer graphene electric circuits and electrodes with a pulsed-laser process improves electrical conductivity without damaging paper, polymers or other fragile printing surfaces.
“This creates a way to commercialize and scale-up the manufacturing of graphene,” Claussen said.
The findings are featured on the front cover of the journal Nanoscale’s issue 35. Claussen and Cheng are lead authors and Das is first author. Additional Iowa State co-authors are Allison Cargill, John Hondred and Shaowei Ding, graduate students in mechanical engineering. Additional Purdue co-authors are Qiong Nian and Mojib Saei, graduate students in industrial engineering.
Two major grants are supporting the project and related research: a three-year grant from the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, U.S. Department of Agriculture, under award number 11901762 and a three-year grant from the Roy J. Carver Charitable Trust. Iowa State’s College of Engineering and department of mechanical engineering are also supporting the research.
The Iowa State Research Foundation Inc. has filed for a patent on the technology.
“The breakthrough of this project is transforming the inkjet-printed graphene into a conductive material capable of being used in new applications,” Claussen said.
Those applications could include sensors with biological applications, energy storage systems, electrical conducting components and even paper-based electronics.
To make all that possible, the engineers developed computer-controlled laser technology that selectively irradiates inkjet-printed graphene oxide. The treatment removes ink binders and reduces graphene oxide to graphene – physically stitching together millions of tiny graphene flakes. The process makes electrical conductivity more than a thousand times better.
“The laser works with a rapid pulse of high-energy photons that do not destroy the graphene or the substrate,” Das said. “They heat locally. They bombard locally. They process locally.”
That localized, laser processing also changes the shape and structure of the printed graphene from a flat surface to one with raised, 3-D nanostructures. The engineers say the 3-D structures are like tiny petals rising from the surface. The rough and ridged structure increases the electrochemical reactivity of the graphene, making it useful for chemical and biological sensors.
All of that, according to Claussen’s team of nanoengineers, could move graphene to commercial applications.
“This work paves the way for not only paper-based electronics with graphene circuits,” the researchers wrote in their paper, “it enables the creation of low-cost and disposable graphene-based electrochemical electrodes for myriad applications including sensors, biosensors, fuel cells and (medical) devices.”
Rice physicists probe photon-electron interactions in vacuum cavity experiments
Where light and matter intersect, the world illuminates. Where light and matter interact so strongly that they become one, they illuminate a world of new physics, according to Rice University scientists.
Rice physicists are closing in on a way to create a new condensed matter state in which all the electrons in a material act as one by manipulating them with light and a magnetic field. The effect made possible by a custom-built, finely tuned cavity for terahertz radiation shows one of the strongest light-matter coupling phenomena ever observed.
The work by Rice physicist Junichiro Kono and his colleagues is described in Nature Physics. It could help advance technologies like quantum computers and communications by revealing new phenomena to those who study cavity quantum electrodynamics and condensed matter physics, Kono said.
Condensed matter in the general sense is anything solid or liquid, but condensed matter physicists study forms that are much more esoteric, like Bose-Einstein condensates. A Rice team was one of the first to make a Bose-Einstein condensate in 1995 when it prompted atoms to form a gas at ultracold temperatures in which all the atoms lose their individual identities and behave as a single unit.
The Kono team is working toward something similar, but with electrons that are strongly coupled, or “dressed,” with light. Qi Zhang, a former graduate student in Kono’s group and lead author of the paper, designed and constructed an extremely high-quality cavity to contain an ultrathin layer of gallium arsenide, a material they’ve used to study superfluorescence. By tuning the material with a magnetic field to resonate with a certain state of light in the cavity, they prompted the formation of polaritons that act in a collective manner.
“This is a nonlinear optical study of a two-dimensional electronic material,” said Zhang, who based his Ph.D. thesis on the work. “When you use light to probe a material’s electronic structure, you’re usually looking for light absorption or reflection or scattering to see what’s happening in the material. That light is just a weak probe and the process is called linear optics.
The researchers employed a parameter known as vacuum Rabi splitting to measure the strength of the light-matter coupling. “In more than 99 percent of previous studies of light-matter coupling in cavities, this value is a negligibly small fraction of the photon energy of the light used,” said Xinwei Li, a co-author and graduate student in Kono’s group. “In our study, vacuum Rabi splitting is as large as 10 percent of the photon energy. That puts us in the so-called ultrastrong coupling regime.
“This is an important regime because, eventually, if the vacuum Rabi splitting becomes larger than the photon energy, the matter goes into a new ground state. That means we can induce a phase transition, which is an important element in condensed matter physics,” he said.
Phase transitions are transitions between states of matter, like ice to water to vapor. The specific transition Kono’s team is looking for is the superradiant phase transition in which the polaritons go into an ordered state with macroscopic coherence.
Kono said the amount of terahertz light put into the cavity is very weak. “What we depend on is the vacuum fluctuation. Vacuum, in a classical sense, is an empty space. There’s nothing. But in a quantum sense, a vacuum is full of fluctuating photons, having so-called zero-point energy. These vacuum photons are actually what we are using to resonantly excite electrons in our cavity.
“This general subject is what’s known as cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED),” Kono said. “In cavity QED, the cavity enhances the light so that matter in the cavity resonantly interacts with the vacuum field. What is unique about solid-state cavity QED is that the light typically interacts with this huge number of electrons, which behave like a single gigantic atom.”
He said solid-state cavity QED is also key for applications that involve quantum information processing, like quantum computers. “The light-matter interface is important because that’s where so-called light-matter entanglement occurs. That way, the quantum information of matter can be transferred to light and light can be sent somewhere.
“For improving the utility of cavity QED in quantum information, the stronger the light-matter coupling, the better, and it has to use a scalable, solid-state system instead of atomic or molecular systems,” he said. “That’s what we’ve achieved here.”
The high-quality gallium arsenide materials used in the study were synthesized via molecular beam epitaxy by John Reno of Sandia National Laboratories and John Watson and Michael Manfra of Purdue University, all co-authors of the paper. Weil Pan of Sandia National Laboratories and Rice graduate student Minhan Lou, who participated in sample preparation and transport and terahertz measurements, are also co-authors.
A new type of electronic sensor that might be used to quickly detect and classify bacteria for medical diagnostics and food safety has passed a key hurdle by distinguishing between dead and living bacteria cells.
Conventional laboratory technologies require that samples be cultured for hours or longer to grow enough of the bacteria for identification and analysis, for example, to determine which antibiotic to prescribe. The new approach might be used to create arrays of hundreds of sensors on an electronic chip, each sensor detecting a specific type of bacteria or pinpointing the effectiveness of particular antibiotics within minutes.
“We have taken a step toward this long-term goal by showing how to distinguish between live and dead bacteria,” said Muhammad Ashraful Alam, Purdue University’s Jai N. Gupta Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering. “This is important because you need to be able to not only detect and identify bacteria, but to determine which antibiotics are effective in killing them.”
Findings are detailed in a research paper appearing this week in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The paper was authored by doctoral student Aida Ebrahimi and Alam. The droplet sensor evolved from a device originally designed to detect small concentrations of negatively charged DNA molecules in research that began about four years ago, Ebrahimi said.
“We did not anticipate that the sensor could be used to tell live and dead bacteria apart – it was a chance observation that eventually led us to this elegant way of measuring cell viability,” she said.
A new highly efficient power amplifier for electronics could help make possible next-generation cell phones, low-cost collision-avoidance radar for cars and lightweight microsatellites for communications.
Fifth-generation, or 5G, mobile devices expected around 2019 will require improved power amplifiers operating at very high frequencies. The new phones will be designed to download and transmit data and videos faster than today’s phones, provide better coverage, consume less power and meet the needs of an emerging “Internet of things” in which everyday objects have network connectivity, allowing them to send and receive data.
Power amplifiers are needed to transmit signals. Because today’s cell phone amplifiers are made of gallium arsenide, they cannot be integrated into the phone’s silicon-based technology, called complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS). The new amplifier design is CMOS-based, meaning it could allow researchers to integrate the power amplifier with the phone’s electronic chip, reducing manufacturing costs and power consumption while boosting performance.
“Silicon is much less expensive than gallium arsenide, more reliable and has a longer lifespan, and if you have everything on one chip it’s also easier to test and maintain,” said Saeed Mohammadi, an associate professor of electrical and computer engineering at Purdue University. “We have developed the highest efficiency CMOS power amplifier in the frequency range needed for 5G cell phones and next-generation radars.”
A prototype for an interactive mobile device, called Cubimorph, which can change shape on-demand will be presented this week at one of the leading international forums for robotics researchers, ICRA 2016, in Stockholm, Sweden [16-21 May].
The research led by Dr Anne Roudaut from the Department of Computer Science at the University of Bristol, in collaboration with academics at the Universities of Purdue, Lancaster and Sussex, will be presented at the International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), the IEEE Robotics and Automation Society’s biggest conference.
There has been a growing interest toward achieving modular interactive devices in the human computer interaction (HCI) community, but so far existing devices consist of folding displays and barely reach high shape resolution.
Cubimorph is a modular interactive device that holds touchscreens on each of the six module faces and that uses a hinge-mounted turntable mechanism to self-reconfigure in the user’s hand. One example is a mobile phone that can transform into a console when a user launches a game.
The modular interactive device, made out of a chain of cubes, contributes towards the vision of programmable matter, where interactive devices change its shape to fit functionalities required by end-users.
At the conference the researchers will present a design rationale that shows user requirements to consider when designing homogeneous modular interactive devices.
The research team will also show the Cubimorph mechanical design, three prototypes demonstrating key aspects – turntable hinges, embedded touchscreens and miniaturisation and an adaptation of the probabilistic roadmap algorithm for the reconfiguration.
Dr Anne Roudaut, Lecturer from the University’s Department of Computer Science and co-leader of the BIG(Bristol Interaction Group), said: “Cubimorph is the first step towards a real modular interactive device. Much work still needs to be achieved to put such devices in the end-user hands but we hope our work will create discussion between the human computer interaction and robotics communities that could be of benefit to one another other.”
A system that uses a laser and electrical current to precisely position and align carbon nanotubes represents a potential new tool for creating electronic devices out of the tiny fibers.
Because carbon nanotubes have unique thermal and electrical properties, they may have future applications in electronic cooling and as devices in microchips, sensors and circuits. Being able to orient the carbon nanotubes in the same direction and precisely position them could allow these nanostructures to be used in such applications.
However, it is difficult to manipulate something so small that thousands of them would fit within the diameter of a single strand of hair, said Steven T. Wereley, a professor of mechanical engineering at Purdue University.
“One of the things we can do with this technique is assemble carbon nanotubes, put them where we want and make them into complicated structures,” he said.
New findings from research led by Purdue doctoral student Avanish Mishra are detailed in a paper that has appeared online March 24 in the journal Microsystems and Nanoengineering, published by the Nature Publishing Group.
The technique, called rapid electrokinetic patterning (REP), uses two parallel electrodes made of indium tin oxide, a transparent and electrically conductive material. The nanotubes are arranged randomly while suspended in deionized water. Applying an electric field causes them to orient vertically. Then an infrared laser heats the fluid, producing a doughnut-shaped vortex of circulating liquid between the two electrodes. This vortex enables the researchers to move the nanotubes and reposition them.
“When we apply the electric field, they are immediately oriented vertically, and then when we apply the laser, it starts a vortex, that sweeps them into little nanotube forests,” Wereley said.
The research paper was authored by Mishra; Purdue graduate student Katherine Clayton; University of Louisville student Vanessa Velasco; Stuart J. Williams, an assistant professor of mechanical engineering at the University of Louisville and director of the Integrated Microfluidic Systems Laboratory; and Wereley. Williams is a former doctoral student at Purdue.
The technique overcomes limitations of other methods for manipulating particles measured on the scale of nanometers, or billionths of a meter. In this study, the procedure was used for multiwalled carbon nanotubes, which are rolled-up ultrathin sheets of carbon called graphene. However, according to the researchers, using this technique other nanoparticles such as nanowires and nanorods can be similarly positioned and fixed in vertical orientation.
The researchers have received a U.S. patent on the system.