Physicists and technicians of the TSU and Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS are developing experimental samples of ceramics that are resistant to extreme temperatures. The scientists aim to invent a material that can withstand up to 3,000 degrees Celsius.
The new product will be used in the space industry and in the manufacture of aircraft engines. Samples of the material were presented at the Second International Conference and Expo on Ceramics and Composite Materials, held 25-26 July in Berlin.
– For a typical metal, the temperature limit is 1,200 degrees Celsius, and there are alloys that can withstand up to 2,000, – says Sergey Kulkov, head of the TSU department of the Faculty of Physics and Engineering and head of the laboratory ISPMS SB RAS. – We managed to create a new multi-layered ceramic material with heat resistance of the upper layer of more than 3,000 degrees Celsius.
This development is intended primarily for space and aviation. It will help to move to a new generation of engines. Multilayer ceramic (the layers are different types of ceramics based on hafnium carbide and zirconium diboride and oxide) will increase the temperature in the combustion chamber of jet engines. It also will provide increased protection of objects during reentry to the atmosphere.
Physicists and technicians plan to test their development in the head institute of Roscosmos State Corporation. The flow of plasma with hypersonic speed will be obtained in the special installation; a test sample of the multilayer ceramic will be placed in it. If in the first test stage the object remains intact at least for 20 seconds upon exposure to 2,200°C, it will prove that the scientists are on the right track.
The new material will also have applications in diagnosis. It also can be used in the manufacture of protective covers for temperature sensors measuring temperatures in the combustion chambers of jet engines. The thermocouples with sapphire tips that are used now cannot withstand the heat and go out of order.
It was founded in 1880 in Tomsk, Russia, and is the oldest university in Russian Asia (in Siberia).
TSU opened in 1888 with only one department, the medical faculty, which separated in 1930, now forming the Siberian State Medical University.
At present, there are 23 departments with 23,000 students. TSU is one of the Russian-39, which marks it as an official National Research University (since 2010) and a top-15 Russian Leading universities (since July, 2013).
Employees of the Department of Celestial Mechanics and Astrometry NII PMM and colleagues from St. Petersburg State University, Keldysh Research Center, and Research Institute Sirius are developing measures to protect the Earth from potentially dangerous celestial bodies. With the help of supercomputer SKIF Cyberia, the scientists simulated the nuclear explosion of an asteroid 200 meters in diameter in such a way that its irradiated fragments do not fall to the Earth.
The way we propose to eliminate the threat from space is reasonable to use in case of the impossibility of the soft disposal of an object from a collision in orbit and for the elimination of an object that is constantly returning to Earth, – says Tatiana Galushina, an employee of the Department of Celestial Mechanics and Astrometry – Previously, as a preventive measure, it was proposed to abolish the asteroid on its approach to our planet, but this could lead to catastrophic consequences – a fall to Earth of the majority of the highly radioactive fragments.
TSU scientists with colleagues from other research centres have offered another solution to the problem. It is known that the majority of dangerous objects pass close to Earth several times before the collision. Therefore, there is a possibility to blow up the asteroid at the time when it is farther from the planet. This measure will be much more effective and safer.