The main campus is located on a 1,022-acre (414 ha) site near Goleta, California, United States, 8 miles (13 km) from Santa Barbara and 100 miles (160 km) northwest of Los Angeles. Tracing its roots back to 1891 as an independent teachers’ college, UCSB joined the University of California system in 1944 and is the third-oldest general-education campus in the system.
UCSB is one of America’s Public Ivy universities, which recognizes top public research universities in the United States. The university is a comprehensive doctoral university and is organized into five colleges and schools offering 87 undergraduate degrees and 55 graduate degrees. The campus is the 6th-largest in the UC system by enrollment with 18,977 undergraduate and 2,950 graduate students. UCSB was ranked 41st among “National Universities” and 11th among public universities by U.S. News & World Report ‘s 2014 rankings. The university was also ranked 33rd worldwide by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings and 35th worldwide (6th worldwide for engineering) by the Academic Ranking of World Universities in 2013.
University of California, Santa Barbara research articles from Innovation Toronto
- Detecting HIV diagnostic antibodies with DNA nanomachines – October 11, 2015
- An Important Step in Artificial Intelligence – May 12, 2015
- Researchers develop the first-ever quantum device that detects and corrects its own errors – March 5, 2015
- Bio-Inspired Bleeding Control – November 21, 2014
- Mathematics Getting More Important in Science – September 30, 2014
- Researchers ‘grow’ lasers in chip breakthrough – September 13, 2014
- Robots that use Wi-Fi to see through walls – August 11, 2014
- Unique semiconductor with huge implications invented – April 13, 2014
- MEDIC implant measures drug levels in the bloodstream
- Could Revolutionize Solar Energy: Quantum waves at the heart of organic solar cells
- Keeping the lights on | cascading power outages
- 50 Meters of Optical Fiber Shrunk to the Size of Microchips | iPhoD
- UC Santa Barbara Scientists Discover Cinnamon Compounds’ Potential Ability to Prevent Alzheimer’s
- UC Santa Barbara Scientists Develop A Whole New Way of Harvesting Energy from the Sun
- California Scientists Propose System to Vaporize Asteroids That Threaten Earth
- 2013 Ocean Health Index Shows Food Provision Remains an Area of Great Concern
- Bright, Laser-Based Lighting Devices
- Portable, Low-Cost Early Warning Test For Osteoporosis
- Is this the future for low-power and high-performance integrated circuits?
- UCSB Researchers Successfully Treat Autism in Infants
- Steps toward quantum computing
- Detecting cocaine “naturally”
- Nanotech Device Mimics Dog’s Nose to Detect Explosives
- VIDEO: Getting (drugs) under your skin
- UCSB scientists examine effects of manufactured nanoparticles on soybean crops
- Nature study highlights many paths to ocean health
- Why great ideas come when you aren’t trying
- First-Of-Its-Kind Study Reveals Surprising Ecological Effects of Earthquake and Tsunami
- Open-Source A.W.S.: Creating a Thousand Clouds
- How to stop fishermen fishing
- The internet at forty
- Science’s Breakthrough of the Year: The First Quantum Machine
- Quantum Computing Reaches for True Power
- New study offers hope for halting incurable citrus disease
- Photovoltaics beat biofuels at converting sun’s energy to miles driven
- Smart Irrigation: A Supercomputer Waters the Lawn
Physicist Dirk Bouwmeester discovers a promising route for combined optical and solid state-based quantum information processing
Tiny units of matter and chemistry that they are, atoms constitute the entire universe. Some rare atoms can store quantum information, an important phenomenon for scientists in their ongoing quest for a quantum Internet.
New research from UC Santa Barbara scientists and their Dutch colleagues exploits a system that has the potential to transfer optical quantum information to a locally stored solid-state quantum format, a requirement of quantum communication. The team’s findings appear in the journal Nature Photonics.
“Our research aims at creating a quantum analog of current fiber optic technology in which light is used to transfer classical information — bits with values zero or one — between computers,” said author Dirk Bouwmeester, a professor in UCSB’s Department of Physics. “The rare earth atoms we’re studying can store the superpositions of zero and one used in quantum computation. In addition, the light by which we communicate with these atoms can also store quantum information.”
Atoms are each composed of a nucleus typically surrounded by inner shells full of electrons and often have a partially filled outer electron shell. The optical and chemical properties of the atoms are mainly determined by the electrons in the outer shell.
Rare earth atoms such as erbium and ytterbium have the opposite composition: a partially filled inner shell surrounded by filled outer shells. This special configuration is what enables these atoms to store quantum information.
However, the unique composition of rare earth atoms leads to electronic transitions so well shielded from the surrounding atoms that optical interactions are extremely weak. Even when implanted in a host material, these atoms maintain those shielded transitions, which in principle can be addressed optically in order to store and retrieve quantum information.
Bouwmeester collaborated with John Bowers, a professor in UCSB’s Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, and investigators at Leiden University in the Netherlands to strengthen these weak interactions by implanting ytterbium into ultra-high-quality optical storage rings on a silicon chip.
“The presence of the high-quality optical ring resonator — even if no light is injected — changes the fundamental optical properties of the embedded atoms, which leads to an order of magnitude increase in optical interaction strength with the ytterbium,” Bouwmeester said. “This increase, known as the Purcell effect, has an intricate dependence on the geometry of the optical light confinement.”
The team’s findings indicate that new samples currently under development at UCSB can enable optical communication to a single ytterbium atom inside optical circuits on a silicon chip, a phenomenon of significant interest for quantum information storage. The experiments also explore the way in which the Purcell effect enhances optical interaction with an ensemble of a few hundred rare earth atoms. The grouping itself has interesting collective properties that can also be explored for the storage of quantum information.
Key is an effect called a photon echo, the result of two distinct light pulses, the first of which causes atoms in ytterbium to become partially excited.
“The first light pulse creates a set of atoms we ‘talk’ to in a specific state and we call that state ‘in phase’ because all the atoms are created at the same time by this optical pulse,” Bouwmeester explained. “However, the individual atoms have slightly different frequencies because of residual coupling to neighboring atoms, which affects their time evolution and causes decoherence in the system.” Decoherence is the inability to keep track of how the system evolves in all its details.
“The trick is that the second light pulse changes the state of the system so that it evolves backwards, causing the atoms to return to the initial phase,” he continued. “This makes everything coherent and causes the atoms to collectively emit the light they absorbed from the first pulse.”
The strength of the photon echo contains important information about the fundamental properties of the ytterbium in the host material. “By analyzing the strength of these photon echoes, we are learning about the fundamental interactions of ytterbium with its surroundings,” Bouwmeester said. “Now we’re working on strengthening the Purcell effect by making the storage rings we use smaller and smaller.”
According to Bouwmeester, quantum computation needs to be compatible with optical communication for information to be shared and transmitted. “Our ultimate goal is to be able to communicate to a single ytterbium atom; then we can start transferring the quantum state of a single photon to a single ytterbium atom,” he added. “Coupling the quantum state of a photon to a quantum solid state is essential for the existence of a quantum Internet.”
Learn more: Rare Earth Atoms See the Light
Rights-based approaches could double fish biomass and make 77 percent of world’s fisheries biologically healthy within a decade
New groundbreaking research shows that with improved fishing approaches — compared to business as usual — the majority of the world’s wild fisheries could be at healthy levels in just 10 years and global fish populations could double by 2050.
The study conducted by researchers from UC Santa Barbara, the University of Washington and the Environmental Defense Fund appears in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
“This research shows that we really can have our fish and eat them, too,” said lead author Christopher Costello, a professor of environmental and resource economics at UCSB’s Bren School of Environmental Science & Management. “We no longer need to see ocean fisheries as a series of trade-offs. In fact, we show that we can have more fish in the water, more food on the plate and more prosperous fishing communities — and it can happen relatively quickly.”
The paper demonstrates that by 2050, applying the same improved fishing approaches could increase profits from the world’s ocean fisheries by 204 percent versus what can be expected under a business-as-usual approach. The increased harvest would be enough to provide a significant source of protein for an additional 500 million people. In the coming decades, with a projected 9.5 billion people competing for more food from maxed-out resources, finding sustainable ways to increase food production has become a critical challenge, Costello noted.
Calculations performed by the investigators showed that if reforms were implemented today, three-quarters of exploited fisheries worldwide could attain population goals within 10 years — and 98 percent by mid-century. The team used a massive database of 4,713 fisheries representing 78 percent of the ocean’s catch. This enabled a far more precise and more granular analysis than ever before.
“We’ve uncovered a really important insight: There is urgency and a tremendous upside in reforming thousands of small-scale, community fisheries around the world,” said co-author Ray Hilborn, a professor of marine biology and fisheries science at the University of Washington. “The research adds to the body of work showing that most of the world’s large fisheries are doing relatively well, but it emphasizes the critical need to rebuild local fisheries, most of which are in the developing world where millions depend on fisheries for food and their livelihoods.”
The analysis suggests that implementing reforms such as those based on secure fishing rights are critical to providing the combined benefits of increased fish populations, food production and profits. “Fishing rights” is a fishery management approach that ends the desperate race to fish by asking fishers to adhere to strict, science-based catch limits in exchange for a right to a share of the catch or to a traditional fishing area.
.“We now have a clear roadmap for how to recover fisheries: Give fishermen secure fishing rights so they can control and protect their future,” said co-author Amanda Leland, senior vice president for oceans at the Environmental Defense Fund. “Countries from the U.S. to Belize to Namibia are leading a turnaround by implementing secure fishing rights and realizing benefits for people and the oceans.”
Since 2000, overfishing in U.S. federal waters has dropped by 70 percent as the number of species managed with fishing rights or “catch shares” has quadrupled. In the past three years, fishing industry jobs have increased 31 percent and fishing revenues have grown by 44 percent. In Belize, a fishing-rights program newly implemented by the government for small-scale fishermen has dramatically increased compliance and shows tremendous potential for recovering important local species.
“Our research reveals a stark choice: Either manage fisheries sustainably and realize the tremendous potential of the world’s oceans, or allow the status quo to continue to draw down the natural capital of our oceans,” said Costello.
Learn more: Better Global Ocean Management