It is the flagship campus of the University of Arkansas System which comprises six main campuses within the state – the University of Arkansas at Little Rock, the University of Arkansas at Monticello, the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff, the University of Arkansas at Fort Smith, and the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. Over 25,000 students are enrolled in over 188 undergraduate, graduate, and professional programs. It is classified by the Carnegie Foundation as a research university with very high research activity. Founded as Arkansas Industrial University in 1871, its present name was adopted in 1899 and classes were first held on January 22, 1872. It is noted for its strong architecture, agriculture (particularly animal science and poultry science), business, communication disorders, creative writing, history, law, and Middle Eastern studies programs.
The University of Arkansas completed its “Campaign for the 21st Century” in 2005, in which the university raised more than $1 billion for the school, used in part to create a new Honors College and significantly increase the university’s endowment. Among these gifts were the largest donation given to a business school at the time ($50 million), and the largest gift given to a public university in America ($300 million), both given by the Walton Family Charitable Support Foundation.
Total enrollment for the fall semester of 2013 was 25,365. The university campus comprises more than 130 buildings on 345 acres (1.40 km2), including Old Main, the first permanent academic building erected, and The Inn at Carnall Hall, which serves as an on-campus hotel and restaurant facility. Academic programs are in excess of 200. The ratio of students to faculty is 17:1.
University of Arkansas research articles from Innovation Toronto
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- Researchers Develop Device to Mitigate Blackouts, Prevent Equipment Damage
- Researchers Develop Effective Thermal Energy Storage System
- Shared Transportation System Would Increase Profits, Reduce Carbon Emissions
- UAMS researchers make breakthrough in radiation protection
- Using solar power to keep runways ice-free
- Algae Converted to Butanol: Fuel Can Be Used in Automobiles
- Developing a ‘smart cane’ for the blind
Mechanical properties of nanomaterials can be altered due to the application of voltage, University of Wyoming researchers have discovered.
The researchers, led by TeYu Chien, a UW assistant professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy, determined that the electric field is responsible for altering the fracture toughness of nanomaterials, which are used in state-of-the-art electronic devices. It is the first observed evidence that the electric field changes the fracture toughness at a nanometer scale.
This finding opens the way for further investigation of nanomaterials regarding electric field-mechanical property interactions, which is extremely important for applications and fundamental research.
Chien is the lead author of a paper, titled “Built-in Electric Field Induced Mechanical Property Change at the Lanthanum Nickelate/Nb-doped Strontium Titanate Interfaces,” that was recently published in Scientific Reports. Scientific Reports is an online, open-access journal from the publishers of Nature. The journal publishes scientifically valid primary research from all areas of the natural and clinical sciences.
Other researchers who contributed to the paper are from the University of Arkansas, University of Tennessee and Argonne National Laboratory in Argonne, Ill.
Chien and his research team studied the surfaces of the fractured interfaces of ceramic materials, including lanthanum nickelate and strontium titanate with a small amount of niobium. The researchers revealed that strontium titanate, within a few nanometers of the interfaces, fractured differently from the strontium titanate away from the interfaces.
The two ceramic materials were chosen because one is a metallic oxide while the other is a semiconductor. When the two types of materials come into contact with each other, an intrinsic electric field will automatically be formed in a region, known as the Schottky barrier, near the interface, Chien explains. The Schottky barrier refers to the region where an intrinsic electric field is formed at metal/semiconductor interfaces.
The intrinsic electric field at interfaces is an inevitable phenomenon whenever one material is in contact with another. The electric field effects on the mechanical properties of materials are rarely studied, especially for nanomaterials. Understanding electric field effects is extremely important for applications of nanoelectromechanical system (NEMS), which are devices, such as actuators, integrating electrical and mechanical functionalities on the nanoscale.
For NEMS materials made in nanoscale, understanding the mechanical properties affected by electric fields is crucial for full control of device performance. The observations in this study pave the way to better understand the mechanical properties of nanomaterials.
“The electric field changes the inter-atomic bond length in the crystal by pushing positively and negatively charged ions in opposite directions,” Chien says. “Altering bond length changes bond strength. Hence, the mechanical properties, such as fracture toughness.”
“The whole picture is this: The intrinsic electric field in the Schottky barrier was created at the interfaces. This then polarized the materials near the interfaces by changing the atomic positions in the crystal. The changed atomic positions altered the inter-atomic bond length inside the materials to change the mechanical properties near the interfaces,” Chien summarizes.
Engineering researchers at the University of Arkansas have invented a novel electrical power converter system that simultaneously accepts power from a variety of energy sources and converts it for use in the electrical grid system
Doctoral student Joseph Carr developed the system with his adviser, Juan Balda, University Professor and head of the department of electrical engineering.
Innovations in this field are critical as the United States moves toward integration of renewable energy sources to the national power grid.
The U.S. Department of Energy pursued and was granted a U.S. patent for the technology and is now seeking licensing opportunities for potential commercialization. The research was sponsored by a Department of Energy grant.
“It is very gratifying when doctoral students who invest many hours working on various research ideas are rewarded with a patent,” Balda said. “At the same time, it is an indication of research work that several faculty members and their students are doing in the field of future energy systems.”
The availability and use of renewable energy sources, such as solar, geothermal and wind, and their associated harvesting systems increase the need for new power converters that can efficiently convert diverse energy sources to work across modern electrical grid systems. Current renewable energy conversion systems are bulky, inefficient and struggle to accept multiple inputs from diverse sources.
The researchers’ high-frequency matrix converter addresses these shortcomings. Its simplified control system uses power converters to allow connection of a variety of power sources to a small, high-frequency transformer. Then, using a high-frequency matrix converter, it produces stable electricity ready to be supplied to the electrical grid system.
‘Halo-like’ device fits on head to quickly bust clots
A new device developed by a physician at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and a researcher at the University of Arkansas at Little Rock could soon be available to treat stroke more effectively.
The ClotBust ER® fits on the head like a halo and delivers therapy to quickly bust clots that cause stroke.
It was developed by William Culp, M.D., professor of radiology, surgery and neurology and vice chairman of research at UAMS, and Doug Wilson, assistant director at the Graduate Institute of Technology at UALR.
Culp has spent many years studying therapy for stroke. One element of Culp’s work included using ultrasound in combination with the clot-busting drug tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA).
While looking into the treatment to dissolve clots in blood vessels, Culp realized one problem is getting the ultrasound to operate through the skull. Ultrasound can be delivered anywhere in a patient’s body unless the waves hit something hard like bone or something very soft, like air.
“We realized we had trouble delivering ultrasound to the vessels at the base of the brain,” Culp said. “The skull stopped the ultrasounds.”
He teamed with Wilson to brainstorm ideas about how to get the ultrasound waves to reach the clot in stroke patients.
“This is a great example of how faculty at both schools can partner to develop new technologies. The success of this research will foster ties between the two campuses,” Wilson said.
“It makes me extremely proud to have contributed to a product with potential to help many people,” he said.
Culp received an $8,000 grant from UAMS that provided him with the materials he needed to experiment. Wilson and Culp completed their first patent for “ultrasound for augmented clot lysis” in 2005. The patent was licensed in 2006 and has been in development by Cerevast Therapeutics.
The ClotBust ER® has 16 transducers scattered around the inside – designed to line up with the thin points in the skull: the temples and the foramen magnum in the base of the skull.
This allows the ultrasound waves to move through the brain without interruption. After the patient is administered an IV containing t-PA, the circular device is placed onto the patient’s head like a sports visor or halo.
“The idea is to deliver ultrasound wherever the clot is and where the IV t-PA is working,” Culp said. “It makes t-PA work better – improving the clot-busting drug by 40 or 50 percent. It’s like taking a cooking pot and stirring it. The ultrasound stirs the drug around, making it work better.”
The clot disappears more quickly. “If we resupply blood, we resupply oxygen. The brain recovers quicker. Quicker is, of course, better,” Culp said.