Baghdad University has suffered greatly as a consequence of the occupation of Iraq, with as many as 90% of students dropping out of some classes. This is down to people moving away due to fear, combined with several kidnappings and hostage takings of students.
Now scientists have a new technique that avoids the expensive enzymes
Producing second-generation biofuel from dead plant tissue is environmentally friendly — but it is also expensive because the process, as used today, needs expensive enzymes, and large companies dominate this market. Now scientists have a new technique that avoids the expensive enzymes. The production of second generation biofuels thus becomes cheaper, probably attracting many more producers and competition, and this may finally bring the price down.
The world’s need for fuel will persist, also when Earth’s deposits of fossil fuels run out. Bioethanol, which is made from the remains of plants after other parts have been used as food or other agricultural products, and therefore termed “second generation,” is seen as a strong potential substitute candidate, and countries like the United States and Brazil are far ahead when it comes to producing bioethanol from plant parts like corn or sugar canes. Corn cubs and sugar canes are in fact plant parts that can also be used directly as food, so there is a great public resistance to accept producing this kind of bioethanol. A big challenge is therefore to become able to produce bioethanol from plant parts, which cannot be used for food.
“The goal is to produce bioethanol from cellulose. Cellulose is very difficult to break down, and therefore cannot directly be used as a food source. Cellulose is found everywhere in nature in rich quantities, for example in the stems of the corn plant. If we can produce bioethanol from the corn stems and keep the corn cubs for food, we have come a long way,” says Per Morgen, professor at the Institute of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark.