The university was founded on July 18, 1962 by the Landtag of Bavaria as the fourth full-fledged university in Bavaria. Following groundbreaking in 1965, the university officially opened to students during the 1967–1968 winter semester, initially housing faculties in Law and Business Sciences and Philosophy. During the summer semester of 1968 the faculty of Theology was created.
Currently, the University of Regensburg houses eleven faculties.
The university actively participates in the European Union’s SOCRATES programme as well as several TEMPUS programmes. Its most famous academic, the previous Pope Benedict XVI, served as a professor there until 1977 and formally retains his chair in theology.
Together with their colleagues from Germany and the Netherlands, scientists at the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT) have found a way to significantly improve computer performance. In their paper published in Nature Photonics, they propose the use of the so-called T-waves, or terahertz radiation as a means of resetting computer memory cells. This process is several thousand times faster than magnetic-field-induced switching.
“We have demonstrated an entirely new way of controlling magnetization, which relies on short electromagnetic pulses at terahertz frequencies. This is an important step towards terahertz electronics. As far as we know, our study is the first to make use of this mechanism to trigger the oscillations of magnetic subsystems,” says Anatoly Zvezdin of Prokhorov General Physics Institute and MIPT, a coauthor of the paper and a USSR State Prize-winning scientist heading MIPT’s Laboratory of Physics of Magnetic Heterostructures and Spintronics for Energy-Saving Information Technologies.
The rapidly increasing amounts of digital data that have to be manipulated, along with the growing complexity of the computation tasks at hand, compel hardware designers to achieve ever higher computational speeds. Many experts believe that classical computation is currently approaching a limit, beyond which no further increase in data processing speed will be practicable. This is motivating scientists all over the world to investigate possibilities of entirely different computer technologies. One of the weak spots in modern computers holding back their evolution is memory: it takes time to complete every set/reset operation for a magnetic memory cell, and reducing the duration of this cycle is a very challenging task.
A group of scientists including Sebastian Baierl of the University of Regensburg, Anatoly Zvezdin, and Alexey Kimel of Radboud University Nijmegen (the Netherlands) and Moscow Technological University (MIREA) proposed that electromagnetic pulses at terahertz frequencies (with wavelengths of about 0.1 millimeters, i.e., between those of microwaves and infrared light) could be used in memory switching instead of external magnetic fields. A more familiar device that makes use of terahertz radiation is the airport body scanner. T-rays can expose weapons or explosives concealed under a person’s clothing, without causing any harm to live tissues.
To find out whether T-rays could be used for convenient memory states switching (storing “magnetic bits” of information), the researchers performed an experiment with thulium orthoferrite (TmFeO?). As a weak ferromagnet, it generates a magnetic field by virtue of the ordered alignment of the magnetic moments, or spins of atoms in the microcrystals (magnetic domains). In order to induce a reorientation of spins, an external magnetic field is necessary.
However, the experiment has shown that it is also possible to control magnetization directly by using terahertz radiation, which excites electronic transitions in thulium ions and alters the magnetic properties of both iron and thulium ions. Furthermore, the effect of T-rays proved to be almost ten times greater than that of the external magnetic field. In other words, the researchers have devised a fast and highly efficient remagnetization technique—a solid foundation for developing ultrafast memory.
The scientists expect their “T-ray switching” to work with other materials as well. Thulium orthoferrite, which was used in the experiment, happens to be convenient for the purposes of demonstration, but the proposed magnetization control scheme itself is applicable to many other magnetic materials.
“There was a Soviet research group that used orthoferrites in their studies, so this was always kind of a priority field for us. This research can be seen as a follow-up on their studies,” says Anatoly Zvezdin.
“Inhibiting DGKi seems to reverse the effects of cystic fibrosis”
Scientists at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) in Heidelberg and Regensburg University, both in Germany, and the University of Lisboa, in Portugal, have discovered a promising potential drug target for cystic fibrosis. Their work, published online today in Cell, also uncovers a large set of genes not previously linked to the disease, demonstrating how a new screening technique can help identify new drug targets.
Cystic fibrosis is a hereditary disease caused by mutations in a single gene called CFTR. These mutations cause problems in various organs, most notably making the lining of the lungs secrete unusually thick mucus. This leads to recurrent life-threatening lung infections, which make it increasingly hard for patients to breathe. The disease is estimated to affect 1 in every 2500-6000 newborns in Europe.
In patients with cystic fibrosis, the mutations to CFTR render it unable to carry out its normal tasks. Among other things, this means CFTR loses the ability to control a protein called the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). Released from CFTR’s control, ENaC becomes hyperactive, cells in the lungs absorb too much sodium and – as water follows the sodium – the mucus in patients’ airways becomes thicker and the lining of the lungs becomes dehydrated. The only drug currently available that directly counteracts a cystic fibrosis-related mutation only works on the three percent of patients that carry one specific mutation out of the almost 2000 CFTR mutations scientists have found so far.
Thus, if you were looking for a more efficient way to fight cystic fibrosis, finding a therapy that would act upon ENaC instead of trying to correct that multitude of CFTR mutations would seem like a good option. But unfortunately, the drugs that inhibit ENaC, mostly developed to treat hypertension, don’t transfer well to cystic fibrosis, where their effects don’t last very long. So scientists at EMBL, Regensburg University and University of Lisboa set out to find alternatives.
“In our screen, we attempted to mimic a drug treatment,” says Rainer Pepperkok, whose team at EMBL developed the technique, “we’d knock down a gene and see if ENaC became inhibited.”
Starting with a list of around 7000 genes, the scientists systematically silenced each one, using a combination of genetics and automated microscopy, and analysed how this affected ENaC. They found over 700 genes which, when inhibited, brought down ENaC activity, including a number of genes no-one knew were involved in the process. Among their findings was a gene called DGKi. When they tested chemicals that inhibit DGKi in lung cells from cystic fibrosis patients, the scientists discovered that it appears to be a very promising drug target.
“Inhibiting DGKi seems to reverse the effects of cystic fibrosis, but not block ENaC completely,” says Margarida Amaral from the University of Lisboa, “indeed, inhibiting DGKi reduces ENaC activity enough for cells to go back to normal, but not so much that they cause other problems, like pulmonary oedema.”