Founded when Wisconsin achieved statehood in 1848, UW–Madison is the official state university of Wisconsin, and the flagship campus of the University of Wisconsin System. It was the first public university established in Wisconsin and remains the oldest and largest public university in the state. It became a land-grant institution in 1866. The 933-acre (378 ha) main campus includes four National Historic Landmarks. Madison has been labeled one of the “Public Ivies,” a publicly funded university considered as providing a quality of education comparable to those of the Ivy League.
UW–Madison is organized into 20 schools which enrolled 29,153 undergraduate, 8,710 graduate, and 2,570 professional students and granted 6,040 bachelor’s, 3,328 graduate and professional degrees in 2008. The University employs over 16,000 faculty, staff, and graduate students. Its comprehensive academic program offers 135 undergraduate majors, along with 151 master’s degree programs and 107 doctoral programs.
The UW is categorized as an RU/VH Research University (very high research activity) in the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. In 2010, it had research expenditures of more than 1 billion dollars. In 2008, the University’s R&D expenditures were ranked the third highest in the nation. Wisconsin is a founding member of the Association of American Universities.
University of Wisconsin-Madison research articles from Innovation Toronto
- Benign bacteria block mosquitoes from transmitting Zika, chikungunya viruses – July 2, 2016
- Finding Zika one paper disc at a time in 2 to 3 hours – May 7, 2016
- Experimental Drug Cancels Effect From Key Intellectual Disability Gene in Mice – April 28, 2016
- With simple process, engineers fabricate fastest flexible silicon transistor for flexible electronics – April 21, 2016
- Fish-eyed lens cuts through the dark – April 18, 2016
- World’s thinnest lens to revolutionise cameras – March 12, 2016
- Power walk: Footsteps could charge mobile electronics – February 14, 2016
- Nanosheet growth technique could revolutionize nanomaterial production – February 1, 2016
- A compassionate approach leads to more help and less punishment – December 20, 2015
- Wisconsin Scientists Grow Functional Vocal Cord Tissue in the Lab – November 28, 2015
- UW–Madison engineers reveal record-setting flexible phototransistor – November 1, 2015
- Discovery of a highly efficient catalyst eases way to hydrogen economy – September 15, 2015
- Machine teaching holds the power to illuminate human learning – August 17, 2015
- Nanoscale light-emitting device can emit light as powerfully as an object 10,000 times its size – July 16, 2015
- New nanogenerator harvests power from rolling tires – June 30, 2015
- UW-Madison startup offers antibiotic alternative to animal producers – June 2, 2015
- A new kind of wood chip: collaboration could lead to biodegradable computer chips – May 31, 2015
- Simple sample: Federal grant advances pain-free blood tests from UW startup – April 24, 2015
- Plowing prairies for grains: Biofuel crops replace grasslands nationwide – April 4, 2015
- Infamous study of humanity’s ‘dark side’ may actually show how to keep it at bay – January 12, 2014
- Scientists Get to the Heart of Fool’s Gold as a Solar Material – November 20, 2014
- See-through sensors open new window into the brain – October 21, 2014
- Yogic Breathing Shows Promise in Reducing Symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder – September 12, 2014
- Best-ever efficiency points to clean, green gas-diesel engine – July 16, 2014
- With graphene a narrow enough ribbon will transform a conductor into a semiconductor – July 6, 2014
- A discovery is made that could revolutionize the computer and telecommunications industry | topological insulators – May 4, 2014
- The key to easy asthma diagnosis is in the blood – April 16, 2014
- At Long Last: A Concrete That’s Nearly Maintenance-Free – April 10, 2014
- Renewable chemical ready for biofuels scale-up | biofuel
- Mouse studies reveal promising vitamin D-based treatment for MS
- Unprecedented genome editing control in flies promises insight into human development, disease
- New gene repair technique promises advances in regenerative medicine
- New catalyst could cut cost of making hydrogen fuel
- Brain Can Be Trained in Compassion, Study Shows
- Stem cell transplant restores memory, learning in mice
- New bird flu strain seen adapting to mammals, humans
- Major symposium on arsenic contamination in food and water supplies
- Low-cost, 3D printable prosthetic hand
- Printed Photonic Crystal Mirrors Shrink On-Chip Lasers Down to Size
- Scientists Produce Eye Structures from Human Blood-Derived Stem Cells
- Despite Safety Worries, Work on Deadly Flu to Be Released
- Metabolic ‘Breathalyzer’ Reveals Early Signs of Disease
- Flu research and public safety
- Flu research and biological warfare
- Microfabrication Breakthrough Could Set Piezoelectric Material Applications in Motion
- Early Warning Signals Of Change: ‘Tipping Points’ Identified Where Sudden Shifts To New Conditions Occur
- Generating hydrogen fuel from waste energy
- Gasoline-diesel ‘Cocktail’: A Potent Recipe For Cleaner, More Efficient Engines
For decades, scientists have tried to harness the unique properties of carbon nanotubes to create high-performance electronics that are faster or consume less power — resulting in longer battery life, faster wireless communication and faster processing speeds for devices like smartphones and laptops.
But a number of challenges have impeded the development of high-performance transistors made of carbon nanotubes, tiny cylinders made of carbon just one atom thick. Consequently, their performance has lagged far behind semiconductors such as silicon and gallium arsenide used in computer chips and personal electronics.
Now, for the first time, University of Wisconsin-Madison materials engineers have created carbon nanotube transistors that outperform state-of-the-art silicon transistors.
Led by Michael Arnold and Padma Gopalan, UW-Madison professors of materials science and engineering, the team’s carbon nanotube transistors achieved current that’s 1.9 times higher than silicon transistors. The researchers reported their advance in a paper published Friday (Sept. 2) in the journal Science Advances.
“This achievement has been a dream of nanotechnology for the last 20 years,” says Arnold. “Making carbon nanotube transistors that are better than silicon transistors is a big milestone. This breakthrough in carbon nanotube transistor performance is a critical advance toward exploiting carbon nanotubes in logic, high-speed communications, and other semiconductor electronics technologies.”
This advance could pave the way for carbon nanotube transistors to replace silicon transistors and continue delivering the performance gains the computer industry relies on and that consumers demand. The new transistors are particularly promising for wireless communications technologies that require a lot of current flowing across a relatively small area.
As some of the best electrical conductors ever discovered, carbon nanotubes have long been recognized as a promising material for next-generation transistors.
Carbon nanotube transistors should be able to perform five times faster or use five times less energy than silicon transistors, according to extrapolations from single nanotube measurements. The nanotube’s ultra-small dimension makes it possible to rapidly change a current signal traveling across it, which could lead to substantial gains in the bandwidth of wireless communications devices.
But researchers have struggled to isolate purely carbon nanotubes, which are crucial, because metallic nanotube impurities act like copper wires and disrupt their semiconducting properties — like a short in an electronic device.
The UW-Madison team used polymers to selectively sort out the semiconducting nanotubes, achieving a solution of ultra-high-purity semiconducting carbon nanotubes.
“We’ve identified specific conditions in which you can get rid of nearly all metallic nanotubes, where we have less than 0.01 percent metallic nanotubes,” says Arnold.
Placement and alignment of the nanotubes is also difficult to control.
To make a good transistor, the nanotubes need to be aligned in just the right order, with just the right spacing, when assembled on a wafer. In 2014, the UW-Madison researchers overcame that challenge when they announced a technique, called “floating evaporative self-assembly,” that gives them this control.
The nanotubes must make good electrical contacts with the metal electrodes of the transistor. Because the polymer the UW-Madison researchers use to isolate the semiconducting nanotubes also acts like an insulating layer between the nanotubes and the electrodes, the team “baked” the nanotube arrays in a vacuum oven to remove the insulating layer. The result: excellent electrical contacts to the nanotubes.
The researchers also developed a treatment that removes residues from the nanotubes after they’re processed in solution.
“In our research, we’ve shown that we can simultaneously overcome all of these challenges of working with nanotubes, and that has allowed us to create these groundbreaking carbon nanotube transistors that surpass silicon and gallium arsenide transistors,” says Arnold.
The researchers benchmarked their carbon nanotube transistor against a silicon transistor of the same size, geometry and leakage current in order to make an apples-to-apples comparison.
They are continuing to work on adapting their device to match the geometry used in silicon transistors, which get smaller with each new generation. Work is also underway to develop high-performance radio frequency amplifiers that may be able to boost a cellphone signal. While the researchers have already scaled their alignment and deposition process to 1 inch by 1 inch wafers, they’re working on scaling the process up for commercial production.
Arnold says it’s exciting to finally reach the point where researchers can exploit the nanotubes to attain performance gains in actual technologies.
“There has been a lot of hype about carbon nanotubes that hasn’t been realized, and that has kind of soured many people’s outlook,” he says. “But we think the hype is deserved. It has just taken decades of work for the materials science to catch up and allow us to effectively harness these materials.”